American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry

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Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Indigenous Ethiopian Kenkese Pods for Health and Food Security

Received: 12 December 2023    Accepted: 10 January 2024    Published: 23 January 2024
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Abstract

Developing countries are both food and health insecure because of shortage, cost and nutrition related problems. Even though Benishangul-Gumuz regional state in Ethiopia is blessed with various edible fruit potentials; it is the most food and health insecure region. Among varieties of indigenous vegetable fruit pods originated in this region; an Indigenous Kenkese (Berta naming) and Andha (Gumuz naming) are widely known which paves this research. This research has been aimed to sketch a baseline research for phytochemical evaluation and medicinal activities estimation of Kenkese fruit pods of both species (Abelmoschus esculentus and Abelmoschus ficulenus) to solve food and health insecurity diet of this region by qualitative standard tests and instrumental techniques, followed by prediction of its medicinal activities. In qualitative analysis, phytochemical bioactive compounds i.e steroids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, Saponins,, tannins, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, protiens, volatile oils, carbonyls and amino acids were screened with polar and nonpolar solvents separately using standard procedures. Results showed that only glycosides and carotenoids are absent in Berta Kenkese whereas almost all bioactive compounds were found in Gumuz Kenkese in different abundancy. The crude fruit pond extracts of both Berta and Gumuz Kenkese samples were undergo UV-Vis (300-800nm) and FTIR (4000-400 cm-1) characterizations. Results of UV-Vis peaks at 324nm and 290nm confirmed presence of Flavonoids in both species with different intensities. The FTIR test predicted presence of functional groups vibration bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C=O, C-O, C-N, C=C, S=O, C=N and N=C stretching. This FTIR peaks confirmed presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids, anhydrides, alcohols, phenols, amines, amides, esters, ethers, sulphur derivatives, glycosides, nitrates, nitriles, isonitriles, organic halogens and carbohydrates in both fruit pond extracts of Berta and Gumuz Kenkeses with different intensities of peaks. From results of such bioactive chemical constitutes, it was concluded that fruit pods of both Kenkese species have high nutritional content and higher bio-active quantities in Berta than Gumuz Kenkeses. Moreover presence of almost all bioactive phyto-constituents confirmed fruit ponds have traditional organic therapeutic properties which can treat different ailments and can produce commercial drugs. Further spectroscopic characterization studies are required to elucidate structure of bioactive compounds and to quantify individual extracted phytochemical components.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11
Published in American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry (Volume 8, Issue 1, June 2024)
Page(s) 1-13
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Phytochemical, Indigenous Kenkese, Health & Food Security, Characterization

References
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[5] Liu, Z.; Ren, Z.; Zhang, J.; Chuang, C.-C.; Kandaswamy, E.; Zhou, T.; Zuo, L. Role of ROS and nutritional antioxidants in human diseases. Front. Physiol. 2018, 9, 477. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
[6] Yamagishi, S.-I.; Matsui, T. Nitric oxide, a janus-faced therapeutic target for diabetic microangiopathy—Friend or foe? Pharmacol. Res. 2011, 64, 187–194. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
[7] Wu, Y.-Y.; Li, W.; Xu, Y.; Jin, E.-H.; Tu, Y.-Y. Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 2011, 12, 744. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
[8] Gülcin, I. Antioxidant activity of food constituents: An overview. Arch. Toxicol. 2012, 86, 345–391. [PubMed].
[9] John, B.; Sulaiman, C.; George, S.; Reddy, V. Total phenolics and flavonoids in selected medicinal plants from Kerala. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2014, 6, 406–408.
[10] Dhellot, J. R.; Matouba, E.; Maloumbi, M. G.; Nzikou, J. M.; Ngoma, D. G. S.; Linder, M.; Desobry, S.; Parmentier, M. Extraction, chemical composition and nutrional characterization of vegetable oils: Case of Amaranthus hybridus (var 1 and 2) of Congo Brazzaville. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2006, 5, 1095–1101.
[11] Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Scatena, F. N.; Hamilton, L. S. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2011.
[12] Li, L.; Pegg, R. B.; Eitenmiller, R. R.; Chun, J.-Y.; Kerrihard, A. L. Selected nutrient analyses of fresh, fresh-stored, and frozen fruits and vegetables. J. Food Compos. Anal. 2017, 59, 8–17. [CrossRef].
[13] Adekunle, A. A.; Ikumapayi, A. M. Antifungal property and phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of Funtumia elastica and Mallotus oppositifolius. West. Indian Med. J. 2006, 55, 219–223. [CrossRef].
[14] S. Petropoulos, Â. Fernandes, L. Barros, and I. C. F. R. Ferreira, “Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage,” vol. 242, no. September 2017, pp. 466–474, 2018.
[15] R. L. Jarret, M. L. Wang, and I. J. Levy, “Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, pp. 4019 - 4024 2011.
[16] R. Article, R. K. Sindhu, and V. Puri, “Phytochemical, Nutritional and Pharmacological evidences for Abelmoschus esculentus (L.),” vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 238–241, 2016.
[17] H. F. Gemede, “Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus) : A Review NutritionalQuality and Health Benefits of Okra Abelmoschus Esculentus AReview,” no. November, 2016.
[18] N. S. Chowdhury, S. Jamaly, F. Farjana, and N. Begum, “A Review on Ethnomedicinal, Pharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmaceutical Profile of Lady ’ s Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Plant,” pp. 94–108, 2019.
[19] M. T. Islam, “Phytochemical information and pharmacological activities of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus): A literature - based review,” no. September 2018, pp. 72–80, 2019.
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    Muhammud, A. M. (2024). Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Indigenous Ethiopian Kenkese Pods for Health and Food Security. American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry, 8(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11

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    Muhammud, A. M. Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Indigenous Ethiopian Kenkese Pods for Health and Food Security. Am. J. Appl. Ind. Chem. 2024, 8(1), 1-13. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11

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    AMA Style

    Muhammud AM. Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Indigenous Ethiopian Kenkese Pods for Health and Food Security. Am J Appl Ind Chem. 2024;8(1):1-13. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11,
      author = {Agraw Mulat Muhammud},
      title = {Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Indigenous Ethiopian Kenkese Pods for Health and Food Security},
      journal = {American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-13},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajaic.20240801.11},
      abstract = {Developing countries are both food and health insecure because of shortage, cost and nutrition related problems. Even though Benishangul-Gumuz regional state in Ethiopia is blessed with various edible fruit potentials; it is the most food and health insecure region. Among varieties of indigenous vegetable fruit pods originated in this region; an Indigenous Kenkese (Berta naming) and Andha (Gumuz naming) are widely known which paves this research. This research has been aimed to sketch a baseline research for phytochemical evaluation and medicinal activities estimation of Kenkese fruit pods of both species (Abelmoschus esculentus and Abelmoschus ficulenus) to solve food and health insecurity diet of this region by qualitative standard tests and instrumental techniques, followed by prediction of its medicinal activities. In qualitative analysis, phytochemical bioactive compounds i.e steroids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, Saponins,, tannins, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, protiens, volatile oils, carbonyls and amino acids were screened with polar and nonpolar solvents separately using standard procedures. Results showed that only glycosides and carotenoids are absent in Berta Kenkese whereas almost all bioactive compounds were found in Gumuz Kenkese in different abundancy. The crude fruit pond extracts of both Berta and Gumuz Kenkese samples were undergo UV-Vis (300-800nm) and FTIR (4000-400 cm-1) characterizations. Results of UV-Vis peaks at 324nm and 290nm confirmed presence of Flavonoids in both species with different intensities. The FTIR test predicted presence of functional groups vibration bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C=O, C-O, C-N, C=C, S=O, C=N and N=C stretching. This FTIR peaks confirmed presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids, anhydrides, alcohols, phenols, amines, amides, esters, ethers, sulphur derivatives, glycosides, nitrates, nitriles, isonitriles, organic halogens and carbohydrates in both fruit pond extracts of Berta and Gumuz Kenkeses with different intensities of peaks. From results of such bioactive chemical constitutes, it was concluded that fruit pods of both Kenkese species have high nutritional content and higher bio-active quantities in Berta than Gumuz Kenkeses. Moreover presence of almost all bioactive phyto-constituents confirmed fruit ponds have traditional organic therapeutic properties which can treat different ailments and can produce commercial drugs. Further spectroscopic characterization studies are required to elucidate structure of bioactive compounds and to quantify individual extracted phytochemical components.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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    T1  - Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Indigenous Ethiopian Kenkese Pods for Health and Food Security
    AU  - Agraw Mulat Muhammud
    Y1  - 2024/01/23
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajaic.20240801.11
    T2  - American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry
    JF  - American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry
    JO  - American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry
    SP  - 1
    EP  - 13
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2994-7294
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    AB  - Developing countries are both food and health insecure because of shortage, cost and nutrition related problems. Even though Benishangul-Gumuz regional state in Ethiopia is blessed with various edible fruit potentials; it is the most food and health insecure region. Among varieties of indigenous vegetable fruit pods originated in this region; an Indigenous Kenkese (Berta naming) and Andha (Gumuz naming) are widely known which paves this research. This research has been aimed to sketch a baseline research for phytochemical evaluation and medicinal activities estimation of Kenkese fruit pods of both species (Abelmoschus esculentus and Abelmoschus ficulenus) to solve food and health insecurity diet of this region by qualitative standard tests and instrumental techniques, followed by prediction of its medicinal activities. In qualitative analysis, phytochemical bioactive compounds i.e steroids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, Saponins,, tannins, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, protiens, volatile oils, carbonyls and amino acids were screened with polar and nonpolar solvents separately using standard procedures. Results showed that only glycosides and carotenoids are absent in Berta Kenkese whereas almost all bioactive compounds were found in Gumuz Kenkese in different abundancy. The crude fruit pond extracts of both Berta and Gumuz Kenkese samples were undergo UV-Vis (300-800nm) and FTIR (4000-400 cm-1) characterizations. Results of UV-Vis peaks at 324nm and 290nm confirmed presence of Flavonoids in both species with different intensities. The FTIR test predicted presence of functional groups vibration bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C=O, C-O, C-N, C=C, S=O, C=N and N=C stretching. This FTIR peaks confirmed presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids, anhydrides, alcohols, phenols, amines, amides, esters, ethers, sulphur derivatives, glycosides, nitrates, nitriles, isonitriles, organic halogens and carbohydrates in both fruit pond extracts of Berta and Gumuz Kenkeses with different intensities of peaks. From results of such bioactive chemical constitutes, it was concluded that fruit pods of both Kenkese species have high nutritional content and higher bio-active quantities in Berta than Gumuz Kenkeses. Moreover presence of almost all bioactive phyto-constituents confirmed fruit ponds have traditional organic therapeutic properties which can treat different ailments and can produce commercial drugs. Further spectroscopic characterization studies are required to elucidate structure of bioactive compounds and to quantify individual extracted phytochemical components.
    
    VL  - 8
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Chemistry, Assosa University, Assosa, Ethiopia

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